Information Central

Dig deeper into entrepreneurial space—including the major industries, the innovative technologies, the public-private partnerships, and more—in Space Angels’ Information Central. You’ll also find links to our coverage in the media and press releases below.

MARS SOL DATE:
51,137.47754
MARS TIME:
22:55:01

Mars Sol Date

The equivalent of the Julian Date for Mars is the Mars Sol Date. At midnight on the 6th January 2000 (ΔtJ2000 = 4.5) it was midnight at the Martian prime meridian, so our starting point for Mars Sol Date is ΔtJ2000 − 4.5. The length of a Martian day and Earth (Julian) day differ by a ratio of 1.027491252 so we divide by that. By convention, to keep the MSD positive going back to midday December 29th 1873, we add 44,796. There is a slight adjustment as the midnights weren't perfectly aligned. Allison, M., and M. McEwen 2000 has −0.00072 but the Mars24 site gives a more up-to-date −0.00096.

Coordinated Mars Time

Coordinated Mars Time (or MTC) is like UTC but for Mars. Because it is just a mean time, it can be calculated directly from the Mars Sol Date as follows: MTC = (24 h × MSD) mod 24.

Mars Mean Anomaly

The mean anomaly is a measure of where an orbiting body is in its orbit. More precisely, it's a measure of how far into the full orbit the body is since its last periapsis (the point in the ellipse closest to the focus). The mean anomaly is the ratio (time-wise) into the full orbit, multiplied by 2π (radians) or 360° although the value doesn't truly correspond to any angle. The mean anomaly is proportional to time (and hence area swept) rather that the actual angle of the body from the focus (which would be the true anomaly). So the mean anomaly can be calculated from ΔtJ2000 if we know the mean anomaly at the J2000 epoch (19.3870°) and the mean daily motion (360° / length of anomalistic orbit in days). This gives us:

M = 19.3870° + 0.52402075°ΔtJ2000

for Mars.

See more on jtauber.github.io/mars-clock/

General Industry Trends

Space Investment Quarterly: Q3 2017

For ten years now, Space Angels has been at the forefront of early-stage space investing, amassing the most comprehensive database of public and private space investments. The Space Angels’ team is pleased to share our maiden quarterly space investment report.

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Industrials & Logistics

Property Off-Planet? The logistics of accessing and leveraging in-space resources

When it comes to establishing property rights and “land use” permits off-planet, the space industry is faced with an unprecedented challenge—but modern legislation and emerging data-sharing technologies may provide a solution.

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General Industry Trends

National Space Councils: What, Why, and Outlook for Entrepreneurial Space Industry

For private space companies, entrepreneurs, and their financial backers, the reemergence of a National Space Council is a notable development—especially given the role commercial companies are playing in America’s space initiatives.

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Satellites

Optical Satellite Communications: The Future is Bright

Space-to-ground optical communications are just now becoming commercially viable, offer real benefits to satellite operators and their customers, and represent an enormous market opportunity within the evolving satellite industry.

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Satellites

SpaceX, STARLINK, and the Battle for Satellite Broadband Deployment

SpaceX has moved to trademark the name STARLINK—a fitting moniker for a global satellite broadband network, and a signal that the company has ratcheted up its satellite constellation initiative. While trademarks are pending, the issue of funding this ambitious vision persists.

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General Industry Trends

Enabling the Next Generation of Entrepreneurs

Space Angels has been accepted as a host company for the Brooke Owens Fellowship Program. We are honored to support the career goals of young women within commercial space, and to provide a mentorship experience for tomorrow’s innovators and explorers.

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Planetary Markets

Moon Shot II: Commercial Lunar Ambitions

Fifty-five years after President Kennedy's landmark address on the nation's space effort, we are on the cusp of a major shift within the global space industry—and entrepreneurs are leading the way back to the Moon.

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In-space Biosphere

3D Printing has Major Implications for the Future of Life in Space

Space-based 3D printing has the potential to support a human presence off-planet. Private companies and government agencies alike are working to advance the technologies which will enable ambitious plans for life in deep space.

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Launchers & Landers

Dressed for Success: Private Launch Cos. Tease 2018’s Spacesuit Fashions

Private launch companies will begin sending humans to orbit in 2018 as part of their contracts with NASA. In preparation, the companies have been hard at work developing new spacesuits for their commercial astronauts.

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Satellites

Smallsats, Space Debris, and Self-Regulation

While a certain degree of functional clutter is necessary to the business goals of private satellite operators, there is consensus within the smallsat industry that steps must be taken to minimize the risk of major collisions and structural damage to orbiting assets.

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General Industry Trends

The Great American Eclipse

On August 21st all eyes across America will be on the skies, for a once in a lifetime astronomical event: a total solar eclipse and the first to cross the US coast to coast in 99 years.

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In-space Biosphere

Breaking the Rad-Hard Mold: The First Supercomputer on the ISS

The ISS may be almost twenty years old, but the space station’s main computers run on positively archaic technology. Fortunately, NASA and Hewlett Packard Enterprise are developing software with the potential to transform advanced computing technology in space.

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Launchers & Landers

Path to Mars Becomes More Clear

After NASA's and SpaceX's announcements in mid-July, it may seem as though our path to Mars has gone off-course. Rather than being seen as setbacks, however, these admissions should be viewed as a natural realigning as NASA grapples with budget realities and SpaceX’s vision for Martian missions comes into clearer focus.

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In-space Biosphere

Payload it Forward: NanoRacks Airlock Prevails at Initial NBL Simulation

NanoRacks’ airlock module is another major marker of an increased commercial presence in space, and—as demand for private space environments grows—will serve as one of the first to prove its capabilities off-planet.

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Satellites

Smallsat Launch Outpacing Market Forecasts

This past Friday, a Soyuz rocket blasted off with 72 small satellites aboard. With these latest satellites successfully delivered to orbit, the space industry is on the cusp of exceeding even the most optimistic expectations for this year’s smallsat launch numbers.

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General Industry Trends

Honoring the Past, Fueling the Future

When you think of America’s race for the stars, Houston will forever be etched in our history books. Home of NASA’s Mission Control, it was also from this very city that President Kennedy set out a goal to the nation—to send a man to the Moon and return him safely to Earth.

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Satellites

Can You Hear Me Now? ATLAS Transforms Communication with Space-Based Assets

We are excited to officially welcome ATLAS Space Operations to the Space Angels portfolio! ATLAS will play a pivotal role in enabling deep space communications for commercial space companies and startup ventures.

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General Industry Trends

Starship Enterprise: Our Entrepreneurial Future in Space

This is a story about how space brings us closer together. How our natural curiosity leads us to explore, to discover, to new perspectives, and ultimately greater understanding.

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Planetary Markets

Staying Alive: Exploring some of the ways commercial space ventures will save your neck on Mars

Living and working on Mars will present a unique set of perils. Luckily, the commercial space industry is developing solutions to address the dangers of life on Mars, which will enable crewed missions in the years ahead.

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General Industry Trends

Meet the Neighbors: Hubs of Entrepreneurial Space

Across the United States, private space companies are making their mark. The geography of the space industry is expanding to include not only legacy tech hubs, but also new hotbeds of innovation that will be crucial to the future of entrepreneurial space.

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General Industry Trends

NASA Welcomes New Astronaut Candidates as Commercial Industry Readies for Liftoff

NASA's new recruits won’t be the only individuals preparing for an increased human presence off-planet. Commercial ventures are keeping pace as both sides work to drive the industry towards greater heights.

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In-space Biosphere

BEAM Celebrates Birthday, Receives 3D-Printed Radiation Shielding

The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) recently celebrated one year in orbit. As commercial space prepares to establish an increased human presence off-planet, the early lessons learned from BEAM will prove invaluable for future generations of in-space habitats.

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General Industry Trends

Traffic Jams on Mars, Space Cops, and the Future of Deep Space Travel

Commercial companies have accelerated the timeline for deep space missions, which are now closer than many people think. As the space industry looks toward the future, aspects of existing infrastructure—both technological, and legal—must be brought up to speed.

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Launchers & Landers

Small Rockets a Boon to Burgeoning Microsatellite Market

Space companies have responded to the needs of microsatellite operators by developing a new class of small launch vehicles. Private companies are pioneering solutions that will offer clients increased flexibility and control over their space-bound assets.

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Launchers & Landers

This American Launch: Boeing, SpaceX and NASA's Commercial Crew

As SpaceX and Boeing race to begin test flights of their Dragon and CST-100 Starliner vehicles by year-end 2018, all eyes are on the commercial launch providers. Their success will have major implications for the American entrepreneurial space industry.

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Planetary Markets

Cold Surface, Hot Market: Commercial Lunar Gains Traction

For anyone with their finger on the pulse of the entrepreneurial space race, it should come as no surprise that the Moon is becoming prime real estate these days. Private companies will demonstrate that they’ve got what it takes to kickstart commerce on the surface of the Moon.

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General Industry Trends

The Power of Telling Stories About Space

Communicating about pushing the boundaries of exploration is vitally important. It helps to retain interest and imagination, as well as inspiring the next generation—all essential things if we are to push forward in a new commercial Space Race.

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Industrials & Logistics

Asteroid Prospects III: In Pursuit of a Thriving Space Economy

As commercial space companies emerge and diversify, we see the foundations of a space-based economy beginning to solidify. But what would a “space economy” actually look like? And what will it take to get us there?

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Satellites

Making Sense of Satellites: Remote Sensing, Communications, and PNT

Satellites are big business: In recent years, satellites, their ground operations, and associated manufacturing have accounted for 62% of space industry revenue. Within the satellite industry, there are three functional subsegments: Communications, Remote Sensing, and PNT.

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General Industry Trends

Disrupting Space – The Rise of the European Space Sector

In today’s new space era, space is no longer the preserve of governments. Commercial companies are driving forward exploration––something which is no different to what we have seen on Earth.

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In-space Biosphere

After the ISS: Big Plans for Commercial Space Habitats

Like so much in space, habitats are going commercial. By the 2020’s, NASA’s intention is to transition low-Earth orbit to the private sector (in terms of both supply and demand).

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Industrials & Logistics

The Untapped Value of In-Space Manufacturing

3D printing, and in-space manufacturing in a broader sense, are more than just a novelty. In-space industrials have an enormous role to play in our future in space. As such, in-space manufacturing represents a key area of interest for investors.

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Satellites

Five Years in the Making: Planet’s Nanosat Fleet and India’s Historic Launch

For the investors that fund ambitious ventures like Planet, successful launches like last week’s ISRO PSLV-C37 mission underscore the sheer potential (and forward momentum) of the entrepreneurial space industry.

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Launchers & Landers

SpaceX, Reusable Rockets, and the Future of Spaceflight

SpaceX has become synonymous with modern-day space exploration. Since its founding in 2002, Elon Musk’s ambitious vision has grown from a something of a pipe dream into everyone’s favorite rocket company.

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In-space Biosphere

Zip Me Up, Scotty: Next-Gen Spacesuits and the Commercial Space Industry

As agencies from across the globe prepare to send crewed missions to low-Earth destinations and beyond, the question of commercial spacesuits becomes a core consideration. A handful of companies are designing the next generation of space attire.

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General Industry Trends

Private-Public Partnerships, NASA, and the Tipping Point of the Entrepreneurial Space Industry

While there has always been a strong commercial element in space, there’s a significant difference in the nature of today’s partnerships between NASA and private companies.

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Industrials & Logistics

Asteroid Prospects II: Between a Rock and a Hard Place

Much of the buzz surrounding the space industry these days is within the larger context of human exploration and colonization. With all this ambition, how do we prioritize which extraterrestrial hurdle to tackle first?

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General Industry Trends

2017: A look ahead to the year in commercial space

As each year passes, the commercial space sector is helping to revive the drive to explore space. To get an idea of what to expect in commercial space in 2017, Sarah Cruddas compiled predictions from space professionals across the globe.

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General Industry Trends

2016 Another Record-breaking Year for the Entrepreneurial Space Industry

In Chad Anderson's annual year-end wrap-up he reflects on some of our favorite space industry highlights from 2016––including reusable rockets, 3D printing, and asteroid prospecting.

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Satellites

Satellite Constellations Vision Finally Being Realized

SpaceX, OneWeb, Planet Labs and others will be launching extensive satellite networks in the near future. This great influx of satellites will require innovative, reliable and effective ground support––and a number of pioneering space startups think they’ve got the answer.

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Industrials & Logistics

Asteroid Prospects: the Facts and Future of Space Mining

The notion of harvesting resources from extraterrestrial sources is not a new one. The lure of untold bounties—orbiting just out of reach—has prompted generations of poets and presidents alike to expound upon the potential applications of space mining.

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Launchers & Landers

Private Sector Progress via Spaceport Tucson

Tucson is home to emerging space startups that have built a place for themselves in Arizona desert: Construction is nearing completion on the Pima County's new Spaceport Tucson,

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General Industry Trends

New Glenn and the Importance of Planetary Science

The passing of John Glenn marks a closure on our first chapter in the history of space exploration. Glenn was not only an American hero, but a global hero.

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Planetary Markets

Lunar Market Opportunity the Real Prize for Private Ventures

Startups from around the globe are trumpeting their intentions to not only revisit the Moon, but also to fully capitalize upon the market opportunity it presents.

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Satellites

Toyota, Kymeta, and the Future of Intelligent Transport Systems

In January 2016, Kymeta Corporation—a leading-edge satellite antenna manufacturing company based in Washington state—announced that their Series D investment round closed with $62M in project funding.

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General Industry Trends

In Search of Answers

While Space Angels Network’s primary focus is investing in businesses with a clear path to financial return, there is also value in donating to space related causes, with the promise of returns beyond financial.

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General Industry Trends

The Next Step for Human Spaceflight

This month has been a significant one for Virgin Galactic. On August 1st it was announced that the company had received its Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) license for testing of SpaceShipTwo.

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In-space Biosphere

Under Pressure: Past, Present, and Future Spacesuit Market

We are at an inflection point for human spaceflight. Therefore, we believe the market for spacesuits is growing and could present an attractive opportunity for investment.

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Planetary Markets

The New Moon Shot

On a September day in Texas, a President’s words ignited the spirit, endeavour, and determination of a nation and set in motion arguably the most significant event in human exploration.

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General Industry Trends

Commercial Use of ICBMs - Impact to Investment Community

Space Angels Network was on Capitol Hill again last week to oppose an amendment to the FY 2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA),

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Industrials & Logistics

Space Resources: Paving our road to space

As we move forward in a new era in space exploration, driven by private enterprise, resources are set to determine the playing field in terms of enabling humans to eventually live and work in space.

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In-space Biosphere

An interview with World View Chief Pilot Ron Garan

This year former NASA astronaut Ron Garan was appointed Chief Pilot of World View Enterprises. The veteran of both Space Shuttle and Soyuz missions spent more than 177 days in space before deciding to leave the agency...

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In-space Biosphere

Bigelow BEAM: Expanding Space

The concept of an inflatable space habitat isn’t exactly what you might have had in mind when envisioning our space future. As is often the case with technology, even things which seem improbable eventually come true.

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General Industry Trends

Commercial Spaceflight - The New Right Stuff

It might not seem like it to everybody now, but the exploration of space is the most significant thing we will ever do as a species. Commercial space tourism matters because it is turning something which is the preserve of the extraordinary into something for everyone.

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General Industry Trends

2015 An Epic Year for the Space Industry

Chad Anderson's annual Year in Review covers the technological triumphs and portfolio progress for the commercial space industry in 2015.

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General Industry Trends

No, Virgin Galactic isn't "building" a UK Spaceport

The truth is that the UK has been working on plans to build a spaceport for the past few years. They're moving ahead with these plans, with or without Virgin Galactic, and have already downselected to just a few potential locations.

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Industrials & Logistics

Asteroid Mining 101

Asteroid Mining: Could the untold riches in asteroids and other planets be the key to exploring the wider Universe? Sarah Cruddas explores how space mining companies might support a future off-planet.

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General Industry Trends

State of the Industry - November 2015

In this 12-minute video, Managing Director Chad Anderson provides an overview of key trends in the commercial space sector, the increasing levels of private investment, and the opportunities that are becoming available.

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General Industry Trends

2014 Year in Review: Commercial Space Investing Hits Its Stride

Space Angels Network's Managing Director, Chad Anderson, reflects on momentum and progress within the commercial space industry in 2014––and also progress within Space Angels Network's portfolio companies.

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General Industry Trends

Response to Unfounded Criticism of Virgin Galactic

Chad Anderson responds to criticism of Virgin Galactic, Richard Branson's private space company.

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General Industry Trends

2013 Year in Review: Space Angels Network

2013 was a tremendous year for the space industry, which saw commercial ventures bring space travel and human spaceflight back to the forefront of public consciousness. Chad Anderson reflects on the past year's space industry highlights and organizational changes.

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General Industry Trends

Chad Anderson publishes: Rethinking Public-Private Space Travel

Chad Anderson discusses the benefits of public-private partnerships in his latest paper, Rethinking public-private space travel, published in Space Policy Journal.

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Planetary Markets

Moon Prospect: Demand for Commercial Lunar Services

During his MBA studies at the University of Oxford, Mr. Anderson produced the first-ever market assessment for commercial lunar services. While completed in July 2013, this report has only just been released publicly.

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General Industry Trends

Space Investing: The Science of Rocket Investing

For the past two decades we’ve seen early-stage capital flood to Internet and mobile startups. Increasingly, investors are looking for more systemic innovations–– and many are in it for more than just the monetary returns.

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General Industry Trends

Space Investing: The Power of Two Bottom Lines

The opportunity for early-stage investing lies in radical innovation. We can do bigger. We can do better. And we can make a lot of money doing it.

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General Industry Trends

Space Investing 101: Discover exciting early-stage aerospace investment opportunities

The space industry has reached a pivotal moment in its development, where a shift toward private enterprise is enabling the growth of an entirely new industry. Today, exciting new investment opportunities exist in an arena that was once only within the reach of governments.

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